Purpose. Emergence of multidrug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, an STI of public health significance is the biggest challenge to gonorrhoea control. Monitoring for antimicrobial resistance is essential for the early detection of emergent drug resistance patterns.
Methodology. One hundred and twenty four N. gonorrhoeae strains were isolated between September 2013-August 2016 [82-New Delhi, 3-Pune, 3-Mumbai, 20-Secunderabad and 16-Hyderabad] to determine antimicrobial susceptibility and to compare the CLSI disc diffusion method with Etest for these strains. The results of the two methods were compared by using kappa statistics.
Results. Ninety eight percent [CI: 96.2–100] of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 52 % [CI: 43.2–60.8] to penicillin, 56 % [CI: 47.2–64.7] to tetracycline and 5 % [CI: 1.2–8.8] to azithromycin. All the strains were susceptible to spectinomycin, ceftriaxone and cefixime except for two strains which showed decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefixime. Kappa scores for penicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and cefixime showed that the CLSI method had high agreement with Etest while tetracycline had substantial agreement.
Conclusion. Our data suggest that the disc diffusion method which is both cost effective and more feasible, can effectively be used routinely for monitoring antibiotic susceptibility in N. gonorrhoeae, in limited resource countries like India. We demonstrate the emergence of decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefixime and threshold levels of resistance to azithromycin in India. This underscores the importance of maintaining continued surveillance for antibiotic resistance in N. gonorrhoeae and a potential requirement for strategic change in guidelines in the not so distant future.
Small-colony variants (SCVs) were obtained from an Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolate in Okinawa, Japan. One variant showed auxotrophy for hemin with a deletion of 20 365 nucleotides, dosC-ydiK-mmuP-mmuM-tauA-tauB-tauC-tauD-hemB-yaiT-yaiV-ampH-yddQ-sbmA-yaiW-yaiY-yaiZ, including hemB, and was more resistant to aminoglycosides and carbapenems, but more susceptible to aztreonam, than the parent strain.