Purpose. The current study has been designed to delineate the efficacy of geraniol (GE) on biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis as well as the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of GE on the development of adaptive resistance.
Methodology. Biofilm biomass quantification assay was performed to evaluate the antibiofilm activity of GE against S. epidermidis. Microscopic observation of biofilms and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), slime and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) production were also studied to support the antibiofilm potential of GE. In addition, S. epidermidis was examined for its adaptive resistance development upon continuous exposure of GE at its subinhibitory concentrations.
Results/Key findings. The MIC of GE against S. epidermidis was 512 µg ml−1. Without hampering the growth of the pathogen, GE at its sub-MICs (50, 100, 150 and 200 µg ml−1) exhibited a dose-dependent increase in antibiofilm activity. The minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of GE was found to be 200 µg ml−1 with a maximum biofilm inhibition of 85 %. Disintegrated biofilm architecture, reduced EPS, slime and CSH production validated the antibiofilm efficacy of GE. Although the action of GE on preformed biofilm is limited, a 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay and live/dead cell staining method revealed reduction in the viability (47 %) of biofilm inhabitants at 2×MIC concentration. Sequential exposure of S. epidermidis to the sub-MICs of GE resulted in poor development of adaptive resistance with diminished biofilm formation.
Conclusion. The present study highlights the potential of GE as a suitable candidate for the control of biofilm-mediated S. epidermidis infections.
The CDC recommends antenatal screening of vaginal/rectal samples for Streptococcus agalactiae at 35–37 weeks' gestation, with intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis for positive cases. We tested a modified use of the Cepheid Xpert GBS real-time PCR kit on enrichment cultures from 554 vaginal/rectal swabs compared to the current subculturing gold standard method. Swabs were inoculated on polymyxin nalidixic acid agar plates, and Todd–Hewitt enrichment broth cultures were examined daily for growth. Todd–Hewitt broth culture was also used for Xpert GBS. There was 92.06 % agreement between the subculture and PCR methods. Sensitivity of Xpert GBS was 100 %, specificity was 89.40 %, positive predictive value was 75.96 % and negative predictive value was 100 %. Colonization incidence was higher with younger (≤24 years) or older (≥35 years) maternal age. Modified use of the Cepheid Xpert GBS would assist rapid diagnosis of S. agalactiae colonization and facilitate timely and appropriate assignment to intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis.