Purpose. Fluoroquinolone resistance (FQ-r) in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers is an urgent health concern in countries where ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (ESBL-Kpn) is prevalent. We investigated FQ-r in Japan where ESBL-Kpn is less prevalent.
Methodology. Clinical ESBL-Kpn isolates from 2011 to 2013 were collected in Nagasaki University Hospital. The ESBL genotypes included CTX-M-15, and the mechanisms of FQ-r through plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) were examined. Clonality was analysed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR and multi-locus sequence typing was performed on selected isolates.
Results/Key findings. Thirty ESBL-Kpn isolates, including seven levofloxacin-resistant isolates, were obtained from different patients. An increase in CTX-M-15-producing strains was observed during the study period (0/11 in 2011, 3/8 in 2012, and 5/11 in 2013). PMQR was detected in 53.3 % of the isolates and aac-(6′)-Ib-cr was the most common (36.7 %). ST15 was observed in 60.0 % of the isolates, and for the most predominant ERIC-PCR profiles, 62.5 % of the isolates possessed the CTX-M-15 genotype and 71.4 % were levofloxacin-resistant. Levofloxacin-resistance was significantly more common in CTX-M-15 isolates (62.5 %) compared to non-CTX-M-15 isolates (9.1 %). Three QRDR mutations and aac(6′)-Ib-cr, but not qnrB and qnrS, were significantly enriched in the CTX-M-15 isolates (100.0 %) compared to the non-CTX-M-15 isolates (13.6 %).
Conclusion. Cumulatively, these results indicate that the epidemic strain, the CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae ST15, is covertly spreading even when ESBL producers are not prevalent. Monitoring these epidemic strains and ESBLs in general is important for quickly identifying health crises and minimizing future risks from FQ-r ESBL-Kpn.
Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxigenic Clostridium difficile colonization (CDC, colonization with toxigenic C. difficile but without symptoms) and C. difficile infection (CDI, active C. difficile infection resulting in disease symptoms) in hepatic cirrhosis patients, identify the risk factors of CDC, and determine the correlation between CDC and CDI.
Methodology. The strains of toxigenic C. difficile were isolated from patients with hepatic cirrhosis within 48 h after admission, followed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Patients were divided into toxigenic CDC group and noncolonized (NC) group according to the colonization. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyse the risk factors for the CDC. Besides, the CDI incidence was compared between the two groups.
Results. Colonization of toxigenic C. difficile was identified in 104 cases (19.8 %). Eighteen sequence types (STs) were identified, among which ST-3, ST-54, ST-35 and ST-37 were the predominant types. Child-Pugh class C(relative risk, RR, 3.025; 95 % CI: 1.410–6.488), decrease of prothrombin time activity (PTA) (RR 2.180; 95 % CI: 1.368–3.476), decrease of platelet (RR 2.746; 95 % CI: 0.931–8.103) and concurrent hepatic encephalopathy (RR 1.740; 95 % CI: 1.012–2.990) were identified as the risk factors for the hepatic cirrhosis patients with CDC. The CDI incidence in the CDC group was also significantly higher than that of the NC group (26.0 % vs 1.7 %, P<0.001).
Conclusion. An carriage rate of 19.8 % was reported in the hepatic cirrhosis patients with C. difficile colonization. Child's class C, decrease of PTA and platelet, and concurrent hepatic encephalopathy were the risk factors for the hepatic cirrhosis patients with C. difficile colonization. Hepatic cirrhosis patients with C. difficile colonization were more susceptible to CDI.