Purpose. Speed of bloodstream infection diagnosis is vital to reduce morbidity and mortality. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) performed directly from liquid blood culture could provide single-assay species and antibiotic susceptibility prediction; however, high inhibitor and human cell/DNA concentrations limit pathogen recovery. We develop a method for the preparation of bacterial DNA for WGS-based diagnostics direct from liquid blood culture.
Methodology. We evaluate three commercial DNA extraction kits: BiOstic Bacteraemia, Amplex Hyplex and MolYsis Plus. Differential centrifugation, filtration, selective lysis and solid-phase reversible immobilization bead clean-up are tested to improve human cells/DNA and inhibitor removal. Using WGS (Illumina/MinION), we assess human DNA removal, pathogen recovery, and predict species and antibiotic susceptibility inpositive blood cultures of 44 Gram-negative and 54 Staphylococcus species.
Results/Key findings. BiOstic kit extractions yield the greatest mean DNA concentration, 94–301 ng µl−1, versus 0–2.5 ng µl−1 using Amplex and MolYsis kits. However, we note higher levels of inhibition (260/280 ratio 0.9–2.1) and human DNA (0.0–4.4×106 copies) in BiOstic extracts. Differential centrifugation (2000 g , 1 min) prior to BiOstic extraction reduces human DNA by 63–89 % with selective lysis minimizing by a further 62 %. Post-extraction bead clean-up lowers inhibition. Overall, 67 % of sequenced samples (Illumina MiSeq) contain <10 % human DNA, with >93 % concordance between WGS-based species and susceptibility predictions and clinical diagnosis. If >60 % of sequencing reads are human (7/98 samples) susceptibility prediction becomes compromised. Novel MinION-based WGS (n=9) currently gives rapid species identification but not susceptibility prediction.
Conclusion. Our method for DNA preparation allows WGS-based diagnosis direct from blood culture bottles, providing species and antibiotic susceptibility prediction in a single assay.
Purpose. Influenza A virus (FluA), influenza B virus (FluB) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illnesses increase hospitalizations during seasonal epidemics.
Methodology. To determine the utility of the Simplexa FluA/B & RSV Direct Assay (Direct Flu/RSV) and its impact on oseltamivir use, we offered this assay to emergency department (ED) patients with influenza-like illness.
Results. Utilization of the Direct Flu/RSV provided a turnaround time (TAT) of 2 hours. Compared to the flu season prior to implementation of the Direct Flu/RSV, clinicians were more likely to prescribe 5 days of oseltamivir therapy for Direct Flu/RSV-positive patients in comparison to those with a negative test.
Conclusions. Use of Direct Flu/RSV provides results rapidly, which leads to more appropriate use of oseltamivir. The ease of use of this assay and quick TAT allows for prompt decision-making, which is essential for patient care and effective disease control during the influenza season.